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Golden Age of Piracy

1692 Port Royal
Earthquake

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1692 Port Royal Earthquake

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Background

Port Royal Newspaper Article (1692)

Port Royal Earthquake Article (1692)

During the 17th century the seaport of Port Royal was the wealthiest and largest maritime commerce center on the island of Jamaica. During this time Kingston had hardly developed and the city was known as one of the best or worst depending on how you looked at it, Pirates Locations in the New World.

However, the destiny of Port Royal was tied with its inhabitants and was not destined for a long and full life. At 11:43 on 7 June 1692 a massive underwater earthquake hit the city of Port Royal causing the northern most part of the island to literally fall into the sea and the destruction of the rest of the city.

The 1692 Port Royal Earthquake was one of the worst disasters of all time and saw an extreme loss of life. Few people survived this incident and the ones who did described a horror scene out of a war. Homes and buildings that sat on loosely packed sand were destroyed and sunk into the ocean with their inhabitants. Many of the forts such as Fort James, Fort Rupert and Fort Carlisle were destroyed. While Fort Charles survived, a large section of the island called Morgan's Line was utterly destroyed.

The heavy stone buildings built atop the sandy beach at the tip of the harbor was always destined to fail however. We can only understand this with modern day science but the area around Jamaica is prone to earthquakes and this event was always destined to happened.

The major destruction occurred through a process called liquefaction which causes the sand to literally disappear into the ocean. While many superstitious and religious people in the 17th century attributed this to the wickedness and the sin of Port Royal, it has a very real and easy scientific explanation.

Impact

The earthquake and subsequent tsunami killed between one thousand and three-thousand people, almost half ofPort Royal's population at once. After the natural disaster, many were left homeless and were killed by rampant disease and improper medicine, clean water and fresh food. Disease caused by rotting corpses killed another estimated 2,000 people. This disaster nearly wiped out the entire population of Port Royal in a single blow.

Edmund Heath's Earthquake Account - Library of Congress

An eyewitness account by Edmund Heath stated that "there was no wind stirring" and all was calm on the island, however suddenly within "four minutes" or so many homes and people were "swallowed up by the gaping earth." Even Henry Morgan's final resting place in 1688 was destroyed during the quake along with nearly two thirds of the entire town.

This was not the first time quakes occurred in the area, however this time it was much worse. When the quakes did not stop, Heath grabbed his family to flee however along the way they "the Earth opened and swallowed up many People before my face" right before seeing massive tsunami wave "mounting in over the wall,". Edmunds then goes on to account the death and destruction that befell Port Royal that day, of which he was an unlikely survivor.

As the news of Port Royal's destruction spread throughout the world it was portrayed as a sign of divine retribution for the debauchery and sins of the pirates, slavery, prostitutes or the wealthy. As news spread of the destruction of Port Royal, it was picked up as a cautionary tale and a sure sign of divine retribution for the lewd behavior of the pirates and prostitutes, the pretensions and wealth of the gentry of the town, or the sins of slavery, depending on the city and the audience.

Cause

Reconstruction

However, the earthquake did not really stop Port Royals penchant for vice, despite the majority of the settlement moving more inland to Kingston, which to this day remains. Eventually, the tides turned completely and Port Royal became more known for the place of their execution. The nooses at Gallows Point in 1720 awaited many pirates such as Charles Vane and 'Calico' Jack Rackham and their crews. Eventually the city started to decline in popularity throughout the 1720's.